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Object Name Lithograph
Title Me-Na-Wa, A Creek Warrior
Artist McKenney, Thomas L.
Artist Hall, James
Artist Bowen, John T.
Date 1836-1844 ca.
Medium hand colored lithograph on paper
Dimensions H-20.188 W-14 inches
Makers inscription below image, "ME-NA-WA./A CREEK WARRIOR./ PUBLISHED BY E.C. BIDDLE, PHILADELPHIA/ Drawn Printed & Coloured at I.T. Bowen's Lithographic Establishment No. 94 Walnut St./ Entered according to act of Congress in the Year 1837 by E.C. Biddle in the Clerks Office of the District Court of the Eastern District of Pennsylvania"
Provenance C. Dexter Jordan
Credit line Gift of C. Dexter Jordan
Accession Number G.1954.81
On view: yes
Label information Menawa led the expedition to kill William McIntosh, a biracial Creek regarded as a traitor by many other Creeks, and was part of the delegation that signed the Treaty of Washington in 1826. This treaty nullified the Treaty of Indian Springs but only restored Creek land in Alabama. Born to a Creek mother and a white trader father like so many Creek leaders, Menawa was one of the few biracial Creeks to support the anti-American Red Sticks in the Creek War of 1813-14. He died during forced removal to the West after the Creek War of 1836.

From 1824 to 1830, Thomas McKenney served as US Superintendent of Indian Affairs in Washington, DC, and during his tenure developed a government collection of portraits of prominent Native Americans who visited the city as delegates of their tribes. McKenney commissioned a well-known Washington portraitist, Charles Bird King, to paint the leaders of about twenty Native American tribes.

This print was published in History of the Indian Tribes of North America. In 1835, Thomas McKenney began work on this publication, illustrated with hand-colored prints based upon the portraits originally painted by Charles Bird King and copied by Charles Inman, as well as portraits by other artists. Each portrait is accompanied with a biography of the subject written by McKenney. Cincinnati lawyer James Hall added a long essay on the history of Native Americans.
Search Terms
Native American
Charles Bird King
American Indian
Muscogee (creek)